Doping - it's drugs, which are used by athletes to artificial buy meldonium online, forced improve performance during the training process and competitive activities. Depending on the type of sports they can have very different and even opposite pharmacological actions from psychostimulant to tranquilizing, diuretic to cardiotropic of influence. Therefore, doping wrongly called stimulants. They are appointed once or course, depending on the tasks and the mechanism of action of drugs. So, no one would never use anabolic steroids once and psychostimulants - course.
Judging by the publications, the conclusions of the IOC MC, dopes were applied and implemented in all countries. The reason for that - an inordinate desire to achieve top places in competitions and mercantile interests of athletes and coaches, sports organizations, of whole countries. For a large number of articles and books (especially in the USA) the last ten years on this subject have been published that describe the practical application of performance enhancing drugs in sport. They have been translated into many languages, including on Russian: see Background material on doping.
It can be noted that taking doping causes numerous complications in athletes, including death. For this reason, and also because all the athletes should be in the same conditions, the IOC MC forbidden to use a number of pharmacological agents in training and competitions. Some believe that it is a violation of human rights, and each competitor is free to qualify as he wants, with or without doping them. In this case, the result of competition will depend on which country will come up with a more powerful doping scheme or rational use of known drugs, and pharmacists will compete stadiums, rather than the athletes.
Regarding the definition of doping is still no consensus, and it is extremely important to clarify, as the doping may be the cause of sanctions, appeals and litigation. Therefore, we can give the following definition, which reflects the essence of the phenomenon: "Doping is called the active substance, means and methods of artificially enhancing athletic performance, which have side effects on the body and for which there are special methods of detection." Thus, blood doping is not a drug. It is an advance of an Athlete, treated by different methods of blood (UV and others), and then, before the competition introduced him as (blood, plasma and packed red blood cells) to increase its quantity, kislorodnotransportnoy function and non-specific stimulation by broken red and white blood cells. In addition, wires and other manipulations to create a non-traditional dosage forms and administration methods.
For example, clinicians and coaches the United States have developed specialized techniques of administration of anabolic steroids, "dog footprints in the snow," the combination, merger, fast switching, cycle, diagram reduce the dosage scheme of increasing dosages plateau steroid jump that reflects the characteristics of the combined and long-term use of these prohibited substances so as to achieve maximum effect and not to be caught doping service expertise.
Doping written thousands of pages, while there is still no single book, where the issues of ideology, as it is possible to use not prohibited, harmless drugs of plant and animal origin.
In our country, doping examination is carried out in the anti-doping laboratory VNIIFK (Head of Laboratory PhD V.A.Semenov, pharmacist), which is equipped with a high resolution and qualified personnel with the latest devices.
The development of biologically active substances of plant origin in combination with products of high biological value nedopingovoy structure of the department of employment VNIIFK biologically active substances, which 18 years as head writer - pharmacologist, has repeatedly lectured on this topic in Russia and abroad.
By doping are all stimulants, a respiratory analeptic, agonists, MAO inhibitors, cholinomimetics, anticholinesterase agents, antidepressants, narcotic analgesics, cardiac glycosides, testosterone and anabolic steroids, corticosteroids, peptide hormones - growth hormone, ACTH, gonadotropins, erythropoetin and others. In addition, in all kinds of shooting prohibited beta-blockers, sodium hydroxybutyrate, tranquilizers, sleeping pills, marijuana, hashish and alcohol, and to avoid masking steroids, their rapid excretion and water - diuretics. To all groups of medicines in the list of banned drugs it has to add, "and other related compounds." This means that it can be detected as the doping and unknown chemical structure and pharmacological action on.
Since testosterone is an endogenous substance that is accepted to count testosterone ratio, which should not (T) to epitestosterone (E) greater than 6: 1. If it is more, it is considered that the athlete introduced exogenous testosterone. However, the level of testosterone in the body can vary widely both in physiological and pathological conditions. For example, in case of reducing the excretion of epitestosterone in the blood during tumor process, functional impairment meta boliziruyuschih enzymes. If the T / E greater than six - carry out more research in three months, as well as collect data on previous studies. In addition, masking agents are prohibited and epitestosterone probenicid that hinder decoding urine.
In the practical use of these groups of drugs that artificially enhance human performance in military, aerospace (except for sports) medicine should observe moderation in their dosages, which almost never happens in a prohibited their use in sport. This leads to serious complications, sometimes lethal ending. A detailed analysis was performed side-effects of doping in our book "Doping monster."
Another important problem that occurs sports doctor in their daily activities, - a differentiation of the combined drugs, which contain doping components, and those that are safe. In various countries, including in Russia, there have been cases where doctors prescribed pharmacological drugs containing doping (ephedrine, anabolic steroids, amphetamines, diuretics and others).
On the other hand, attempts were made to conceal the intentional doping admission, to forcibly increase the performance of athletes, alleged ignorance of the fact that they are not doping nasal drops or intra-articular injection. However, ignorance of the issue does not exempt from liability in case of detection in the assay, prohibited drugs. It is very difficult to prove the IOC MC, that there was a mistake and not a deliberate act. Therefore, it is better to consult in advance with experts, as all that is appointed by the Athlete orally or parenterally (including specialized nutrition, biologically active food supplements, vitamin complexes, geriatric drugs) have to have anti-doping certificate. This is not a superfluous measure, as the frequent provocations by sports competition, which was added to the food and drinks doping to eliminate the strong athlete from the competition.
Sports and doping
All kinds of physical activity divided by the intensity of loads at a very high, high, medium and low intensity. This corresponds to the level of sports qualification of top-class athletes (Olympic champions and world champions), masters of sports of international class masters of sports, fuses, persons engaged in physical activity not engaged in physical culture and dealing with physical therapy for rehabilitation of certain functions using given physical activity. Naturally, the requirements for these individuals, their fitness, nutrition and pharmacologic software will be completely different. However, they all have their limits, which limit human physical performance.
It should be borne in mind that these factors limiting performance, depending on the type of physical activity, which can be subdivided in accordance with the classifications of sports into five main groups:
1. Cyclical sports with primary display of endurance (jogging, swimming, cross country skiing, speed skating, all kinds of boating, cycling, etc.), when the same movement is repeated many times, spent a lot of energy, and the work itself is done with high and very high intensity. These sports require the support of metabolism, specialized food, especially in the marathon, when switching power sources of carbohydrate (energy phosphates, glycogen, glucose) in the body. Hormonal control systems of these types of metabolism is essential in the prediction and correction pharmacological performance.
2. The speed-strength types, where quality is the main manifestation of an explosive, a short time and very intense physical activity (all sprint, throwing and weight lifting, etc.). In most cases these symptoms are "dependent on genetic determinants and the sources of energy to ensure that such activities are fundamentally different phenomenon at about endurance. Natural Born sprinters have a high percentage of fast-twitch muscle fibers in comparison with the long-distance runners. Speed is very demonstrative indicator that undergoes with increasing age of the earliest and pronounced decline in comparison with the strength and endurance. The increase in body weight in all throwers and weight lifters require special monitoring of specialized nutritional and catabolic shift in the anabolic phase of metabolism without the use of anabolic steroids and growth hormone. At the same sprinters unacceptable uncontrolled weight gain. The prevailing carbohydrate metabolism and energy sources: energy-rich.
3. Martial arts are very numerous types of sports activities (all kinds of wrestling, boxing, etc.). A characteristic feature of the energy consumption in the martial arts is a fickle, cyclical levels of physical activity, depending on the specific conditions of the struggle, even though, at times, they reach very high intensity. Type of physical activity, its duration and intensity are the basis for the selection of pharmaceutical products. These sports, in most cases, quite traumatic, that can cause disorders of microcirculation and metabolic processes in the brain, therefore it is necessary to use drugs as protectors nootropic action.
4. Game types are characterized by constant alternation of intense muscle activity and relaxation, when the athletes are not involved directly in the game episodes. Of great importance are the coordination of movements, and mental stability. Tasks related to the pharmacological ensure correction of the recovery process, energy compensation, improvement of metabolic processes in the brain with the help of vitamin complexes, nootropics, adaptogenic plant and animal origin, as well as antioxidants.
5. Slozhnokoordinatsionnye types are based on the finest elements of the movement, as is the case in figure skating, gymnastics, diving, shooting, requiring excellent speed and attention. Physical activity varies widely. For example, to make a difficult jump needs a huge explosive force, while at shooting requires concentration and a decrease tremor. Of great importance is increasing the mental stability of herbal preparations soothing action (valerian, hawthorn without alcohol components), nootropics, vitamin complexes, energy-rich foods.
Slozhnotehnicheskie species is largely associated with the use of technical equipment (auto racing, bobsled, parachuting, sailing and many others). The level of physical activity may not reach very high values, but the tension is at the limit of human capabilities, which defines the principles of pharmacological correction - improving mental stability.
In addition, there are a number of mixed sports where there are different types of combined events, including the listed types of physical activity of the person. Naturally, pharmacologic maintenance tasks differ significantly and fundamentally. I should add that there are many problems with the restoration and maintenance of the high intellectual level of the competition in chess as a sport.
Thus, there is no reason to believe that there are universal pharmacological tools that could help solve the unique challenges of sports pharmacology.
Thus, sports activities include virtually all types of physical performance as a dynamic and static. Next, we consider the pharmacological agents that affect endurance, speed, strength, coordination, taking into account the intensity of physical activity.